Polish Political System
Poland is a parliamentary republic. The supreme law of Poland is the Constitution passed on 2 April 1997, ratified by a national referendum. The government system of the Republic of Poland is based on the separation of and balance between the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
The national legislature is bicameral and is vested in the Sejm and the Senate (respectively the lower and upper houses of the Parliament).
Executive powers are entrusted to the Prime Minister and his Cabinet, referred to as the Council of Ministers, and to the President of the Republic of Poland. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and approved by the Parliament. He manages the work of the Council of Ministers, supervises local government and is officially the head of the government administration. The President is the most senior representative of the Polish State, nationally and internationally. He is the guardian of the Constitution as well as of Poland’s territorial integrity and the maintenance of international political and military alliances.
Judicial authority is vested in the independent courts and tribunals. The Supreme Court is the highest body supervising the judiciary, which ensures that the judicature of courts and military tribunals is uniform and in accordance with law. Consideration of appeals and annulments come under its power. The Supreme Court arbitrates legal disputes, hears election protests and certifies the validity of parliamentary and presidential elections. Moreover, it certifies the validity of constitutional and nationwide referenda. It also gives its opinion on Bills and other Regulations.